Module also offered within study programmes:
General information:
Name:
Physics 2
Course of study:
2017/2018
Code:
IES-1-203-s
Faculty of:
Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications
Study level:
First-cycle studies
Specialty:
-
Field of study:
Electronics and Telecommunications
Semester:
2
Profile of education:
Academic (A)
Lecture language:
English
Form and type of study:
Full-time studies
Responsible teacher:
prof. dr hab. inż. Zakrzewska Katarzyna (zak@agh.edu.pl)
Academic teachers:
dr inż. Dziurdzia Barbara (dziurd@agh.edu.pl)
dr hab. inż. Marszałek Konstanty (marszale@agh.edu.pl)
prof. dr hab. inż. Zakrzewska Katarzyna (zak@agh.edu.pl)
mgr Łysoń-Sypień Barbara (b.lyson@wp.pl)
Module summary

Description of learning outcomes for module
MLO code Student after module completion has the knowledge/ knows how to/is able to Connections with FLO Method of learning outcomes verification (form of completion)
Social competence
M_K001 Students realize that it is necessary to develop practical skills required to investigate and describe physical phenomena ES1A_K01, ES1A_W02 Oral answer
M_K002 Students working in a team become aware of the importance of cooperation especially while performing experiments. They learn how to share responsibility in data processing and presentation of results ES1A_K04, ES1A_W02 Oral answer
M_K003 Students become aware of the importance and implications of engineer work for society and the environment. They gain consciousness and responsibility for their future work ES1A_K02 Activity during classes,
Involvement in teamwork
Skills
M_U001 Students are able to apply suitable physics laws and principles to solve problems related to wave optics, modern physics, solid state physics and basics of quantum mechanics ES1A_W02 Examination,
Test
M_U002 Students develop further skills in planning investigations, scientific thinking and performing experiments ES1A_W02 Oral answer
M_U003 Students acquire practical knowledge in the field of processing experimental data, estimating uncertainties of measurements and presenting results ES1A_U03, ES1A_W02, ES1A_U12 Examination,
Report
M_U004 Students understand the principle of operation of modern electronic devices and on the basis of this knowledge they are able to design new systems ES1A_W02 Oral answer
Knowledge
M_W001 Students become conscious of the position of physics among natural sciences and its contribution to the fundamental laws of the Universe. This module provides understanding of the role of solid state physics in the field of engineering especially electronics and telecommunication. Students perceive the interplay between theory and experiment ES1A_W02 Examination,
Test
M_W002 Students acquire knowledge and understanding about fundamental concepts related to modern physics, the state of current research and development ES1A_W02 Examination,
Test
M_W003 Students develop knowledge about: wave optics, interaction between matter and radiation, modern and solid state physics, basics of quantum physics required for the further understanding of fundamental phenomena related to electronics and telecommunication ES1A_W02 Examination,
Test
FLO matrix in relation to forms of classes
MLO code Student after module completion has the knowledge/ knows how to/is able to Form of classes
Lecture
Audit. classes
Lab. classes
Project classes
Conv. seminar
Seminar classes
Pract. classes
Zaj. terenowe
Zaj. warsztatowe
Others
E-learning
Social competence
M_K001 Students realize that it is necessary to develop practical skills required to investigate and describe physical phenomena + + + - - - - - - - -
M_K002 Students working in a team become aware of the importance of cooperation especially while performing experiments. They learn how to share responsibility in data processing and presentation of results - - + - - - - - - - -
M_K003 Students become aware of the importance and implications of engineer work for society and the environment. They gain consciousness and responsibility for their future work + + + - - - - - - - -
Skills
M_U001 Students are able to apply suitable physics laws and principles to solve problems related to wave optics, modern physics, solid state physics and basics of quantum mechanics + + + - - - - - - - -
M_U002 Students develop further skills in planning investigations, scientific thinking and performing experiments - - + - - - - - - - -
M_U003 Students acquire practical knowledge in the field of processing experimental data, estimating uncertainties of measurements and presenting results + - + - - - - - - - -
M_U004 Students understand the principle of operation of modern electronic devices and on the basis of this knowledge they are able to design new systems - - + - - - - - - - -
Knowledge
M_W001 Students become conscious of the position of physics among natural sciences and its contribution to the fundamental laws of the Universe. This module provides understanding of the role of solid state physics in the field of engineering especially electronics and telecommunication. Students perceive the interplay between theory and experiment + + + - - - - - - - -
M_W002 Students acquire knowledge and understanding about fundamental concepts related to modern physics, the state of current research and development + + + - - - - - - - -
M_W003 Students develop knowledge about: wave optics, interaction between matter and radiation, modern and solid state physics, basics of quantum physics required for the further understanding of fundamental phenomena related to electronics and telecommunication + + + - - - - - - - -
Module content
Lectures:
  1. Introduction to the Analysis of Measurements’ Uncertainties (3h)

    Sources of experimental errors. Relative and absolute uncertainty, standard and maximum uncertainty. Classification of errors according to International Standards of Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation. Average value, variance, standard deviation, histogram. Normal distribution of uncertainties. Propagation of errors. Data treatment: the least squares method – linear regression and linearization of data

  2. Wave Optics (4h)

    Characterization of electromagnetic waves (frequency spectrum, visible range – light), interference and diffraction of electromagnetic waves. Polarization, Malus law. Reflection and refraction, Fermat’s principle. Dispersion of white light. Sources of light; coherent light, spontaneous and stimulated emission, emission spectrum of hydrogen atom, laser

  3. Blackbody Radiation – Introduction to Modern Physics (2h)

    Blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff’s function, Wien’s displacement law, Boltzmann’s law, Planck’s formula, contribution of Einstein to the description of blackbody radiation

  4. Special Theory of Relativity (3h)

    Postulates of special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformation and its consequences: length contraction, time dilatation, transformation of velocity. Relativistic dynamics: mass, momentum, and energy

  5. Wave – Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation (2h)

    Quanta of radiation, photon energy, photon momentum, wave – particle dualism, energy-frequency dependence

  6. Matter Waves (5h)

    Matter waves, de Broglie relationship, Davisson-Germer experiment, photoelectric effect, Compton’s effect.
    Heisenberg’s position-momentum uncertainty relation, postulates of quantum physics, Schrödinger’s equation, probabilistic interpretation of wave functions, Schrödinger’s equation for free particle and infinite potential well, quantization of energy, barriers, tunneling, principle of operation of scanning tunneling microscope, STM

  7. Atomic Physics (3h)

    Hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, atomic spectra, quantum numbers, Boltzmann’s distribution function, quantum statistics: Fermi-Dirac’s and Bose-Einstein’s distribution functions, Fermi gas in k space, free electron model, density of states.

  8. Basics of Solid State Physics (8h)

    Description of crystallographic structure, elementary cell, Bravais lattice. Periodic table, complex atoms, ordering of elements, simple model of H2 molecule, binding energy, chemical bonding, ionic crystals, covalent bonding, metals, van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonded crystals, vibrational and rotational levels. Potential energy of electron in a crystal, characterization of insulators, metals, semiconductors, band structure of solids, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, definition of carrier mobility, mechanism of scattering, Matthiessen rule, p-n junction, majority and minority charge carriers, diffusion and drift currents, some basic applications of semiconductors: junction rectifier, light – emitting diode LED, field effect transistor FET. Introduction to micro and nanoelectronics

Auditorium classes:
  1. Practical Analysis of Measurements’ Uncertainties (2h)

    Students develop practical skills in analysis of uncertainties of simple and complex measurands, in the case of systematic and stochastic errors; calculation example for error propagation, methods of total differential and logarithmic derivative. Average value and standard deviation calculations. Review of Gauss distribution functions. Introduction to linear regression

  2. Wave Optics (3h)

    Derivation of wave equation from Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. Development of practical skills in dealing with the wave equation and its solution. Construction of interference and diffraction patterns. Solving simple problems related to wave nature of light. Application of Fermat’s principle

  3. Blackbody Radiation (2h)

    Discussion of the state of the physics at the turn of XIX and XX century. Calling attention to breakthrough discoveries and their meaning. Solution of problems using Wien and Boltzmann laws. The role of Planck’s formula and contribution of Einstein to the description of blackbody radiation

  4. Special Theory of Relativity (2h)

    Examples of application of Lorentz transformation. Derivation of transformation formulas for velocity. Implications of Lorentz transformation: non-simultaneity of events, length contraction and time dilatation. Solution of simple tasks of relativistic dynamics taking into account the equivalence of mass and energy

  5. Wave – Particle Dualism (3h)

    Introduction of the concept of quantum nature of radiation. Solution of simple exercises concerning momentum and photon energy. Development of practical skills of reasoning while explaining the photoelectric effect and its applications. Derivation of the equation fundamental to Compton’s effect; numerical examples

  6. Matter Waves (2h)

    Discussion of de Broglie hypothesis. Analogy between matter waves of probability and electromagnetic waves. Understanding of Heisenberg’s principle applied to uncertainty of position and momentum. Interpretation of Heisenberg’s microscope and double-slit interference. Consequences of time-energy Heisenberg’s principle (e.g. broadening of emission lines)

  7. Schrödinger’s Equation (4h)

    Detailed discussion of Schrödinger’s equation and probabilistic interpretation of wave functions. Separation of variables in Schrödinger’s equation. Free particle as an example of simple solution of Schrödinger’s equation in zero potential. More complicated solutions of time-independent Schrödinger’s equation: infinite and finite potential wells and potential barriers. Consequences of boundary conditions: quantization of energy, dispersion relation. Importance and applications of tunneling.

  8. Early Models of Atom (2h)

    Overview of historical models of atom. Bohr’s postulates for hydrogen atom model: quantization of momentum. Consequences of Bohr’s postulates: quantization of energy levels. Interpretation of absorption and emission spectra of atoms, successes and drawbacks of Bohr’s model.

  9. Hydrogen Atom in Quantum Mechanics (3h)

    Solution of Schrödinger’s equation for an electron in the central field of Coulomb potential, separation of variables in Schrödinger’s equation in the spherical coordinates, quantum numbers, eigenvalues of energy for hydrogen atom, degeneracy, shells and subshells, operators of momentum and angular momentum in quantum mechanics, orbital magnetic dipole moment, spin of electron, nuclear magnetic resonance NMR

  10. Classical and Quantum statistics (3 h)

    Many-body problem, elements of statistical physics, calculations of average values, probability density function, classical distribution functions: Maxwell’s distribution of velocity of gas particles, Boltzmann’s distribution function, Fermi-Dirac’s and Bose-Einstein’s quantum statistics, bosons and fermions, consequences of Pauli exclusion principle, definition of Fermi energy, derivation of Fermi energy dependence on carrier density – one and three dimensional models, Fermi sphere

  11. Electrical Conductivity of Solids – Semiconductor Devices; Elements of Solid State Physics (4h)

    Description of chemical bonding; overview of classification into dielectrics, metals and semiconductors, band structure of solids, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, p-n junction, majority and minority charge carriers, diffusion and drift currents, selected applications of semiconductors – semiconductor devices: junction rectifier, light – emitting diode LED, field effect transistor FET

Laboratory classes:
  1. Simple Harmonic Motion of Masses on Springs

    Observation of the harmonic motion and determination of spring constant and shear modulus of metals; discussion on the theory of elasticity and simple harmonic motion

  2. Viscosity Coefficient (Hydrodynamics)

    Observation of motion of an object in fluid; determination of the viscosity coefficient of fluid using the Stokes method; discussion on the theory of fluid viscosity and laws of hydrodynamics

  3. Maximum Power Transfer

    Investigation of conditions for maximum power transfer in a circuit; discussion about the real and ideal emf device, Kirchoff’s laws, power dissipation in a single-loop circuit, matching of load to a power source

  4. Capacitance Bridge

    Finding unknown capacitors, their parallel and series combinations using a Wheatstone’s bridge; discussion about the capacitance in general, capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor with and without a dielectric, energy stored in a capacitor, balance of the Wheatstone’s bridge

  5. Self-Inductance of Magnetic Coils

    Experimenting with ac and dc current circuits containing magnetic coils; determination of self-inductance of a coil; discussion of Faraday’s law of induction, Lenz’s law, self-induced emf, impedance, admittance, inductive reactance, inductance

  6. Resonance of Acoustic Waves

    Observation of propagation of acoustic waves in gas media; determination of the sound velocity in air and CO2 by means of resonance in Quincke tube, determination of the ratio of molar specific heats at constant pressure and volume for two gas media with molecules of different degree of freedom; discussion on the theory of waves, acoustics and thermodynamics

  7. U-I Characteristics of Various Resistors

    Experimenting with dc current circuits of ohmic- and non-ohmic resistance; checking the validity of Ohm’s law; determination of temperature coefficient of resistance TCR and bulb filament temperature as a function of current; discussion about the mechanism of electrical conductivity for various types of solids, Ohm’s law, variation of resistance with temperature

  8. Refractive Index of Solids

    Microscope observation of objects; determination of refractive index of transparent solids (glass, plexiglass, quartz) by comparison of the real and apparent thickness of a plate; discussion about laws of optics – law of refraction, law of reflection, index of refraction, total internal reflection, chromatic dispersion, Fermat’s rule

  9. Diffraction and Polarization of Light

    Observation of polarization and diffraction of laser light; checking validity of Malus law; measurement of distribution of intensity of light on a screen in the case of diffraction by a single slit; determination of the slit width by means of the analysis of diffraction pattern; discussion about the wave optics with a special emphasis on polarization, interference, diffraction phenomena and laser action

  10. Damped Oscillations in RLC Circuits

    Observations of damped oscillations in RLC circuits; measurements of the amplitude, period, angular frequency, damping constant and critical resistance for damped oscillatory signals; discussion on electromagnetic oscillations, fundamental differential equation that governs these oscillations, undamped, damped and forced oscillations

  11. Energy Levels of Hydrogen Atom – Determination of Rydberg Constant

    Observation and quantitative assessment of emission spectra in the case of helium and hydrogen gases; the use of diffraction grating and spectrometer; determination of Rydberg constant and ionization energy for hydrogen atom; discussion of Bohr’s model and basics of atomic physics

  12. Hall Effect

    Observation of Hall effect, i.e., generation of potential difference across a strip of conductor or semiconductor in magnetic field; determination of the mobility and concentration of carriers in semiconductor from this potential difference; discussion on the magnetic fields, Lorentz force, charged particles in crossed electric and magnetic fields, electrical conductivity of solids, doped semiconductors, mobility and concentration of charge carriers in semiconductors

Student workload (ECTS credits balance)
Student activity form Student workload
Summary student workload 175 h
Module ECTS credits 6 ECTS
Participation in lectures 28 h
Realization of independently performed tasks 61 h
Participation in laboratory classes 28 h
Preparation of a report, presentation, written work, etc. 30 h
Participation in auditorium classes 28 h
Additional information
Method of calculating the final grade:

Students with positive assessments (at least 3.0) from both tutorials and laboratory are allowed to take the exam. The exam is performed in written and oral form. The negative mark of the written exam (2.0) excludes the candidate from the oral exam. Students whose score at the written exam is well above the average can be exempted from the oral exam. The final assessment is calculated as the weighted average of the grades from tutorials, laboratory sessions and the exam.

Prerequisites and additional requirements:

Basic knowledge of physics and mathematics at the level of the first university year (first semester) is required.
Additionally, the material covered by Physics I is obligatory.

Recommended literature and teaching resources:

1. D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, John Wiley@Sons Inc., 2008
2. J. Bernstein, P.M. Fishbane, S. Gasiorowicz, Modern Physics, Prentice Hall, 2000
3. C. Kittel, Wstęp do Fizyki Ciała Stałego, PWN Warszawa 1975
4. E.M. Purcel, Elektryczność i Magnetyzm, PWN Warszawa 1973
5. R. Eisberg, R. Resnick, Fizyka kwantowa, PWN Warszawa 1983
6. Lecture and additional tests and teaching aids available at the website of the module Physics 2,
7. Manuals for experiments available at the website of the module Physics 2
8. A. Zięba, Pracownia Fizyczna, WFiTJ, Skrypt Uczelniany SU 1642, Kraków 2002

Scientific publications of module course instructors related to the topic of the module:

Additional scientific publications not specified

Additional information:

The purpose of this course is to develop theoretical and practical skills in description of the real, natural world based on the fundamental laws and physical principles. Student understands physical phenomena and their importance, learns to solve simple problems in engineering, learns how to plan and perform experiments and how to carry out the analysis of results and uncertainties.

This course is composed of lectures (30 hours), tutorials (30 hours) and laboratory (30 hours).

The aim of tutorials is consolidation of knowledge acquired during lectures and development of practical skills while dealing with fundamental principles and laws of modern physics. Students solve problems and tasks related to lecture topics in a test form. They have a chance to discuss their problems at class or at special consultations organized by a lecturer or an assistant. Homework is required. Monitoring of results is carried out in a written form.

Laboratory sessions are intended to consolidate knowledge acquired through the direct contact with experiments. The objective of these activities is training the skills of planning and carrying out measurements of physical quantities, data treatment and analysis of uncertainties of the results. In the framework of these activities, students pass the tests related to theory, perform experiments and prepare reports. The entire laboratory session is assessed on the basis of the test from theory and the report. Student performs a certain number of experiments out of 12 available. Each session last 2 hours and the total direct engagement of the student amount to 30 hours (introductory meeting and final assessment included).